Pithekoussai – Prehistory and Protohistory

Apollo e le Ninfe
Apollo and the Nymphs

Apollo and the Nymphs

The bas-relief, which is made of Carrara marble and comes from the temple of the Nymphs at Nitrodi di Barano d’Ischia, can be dated to the second century AD (100 – 199 AD) according to the context.

The scene, inserted in a moulded frame, portrays on the left side Apollo (Zeus and Leto’s son, Artemis’ brother, the god of the sun and the arts personified by the Muses). He is naked, with the lyre leaning on a tripod, followed by three Nymphs (minor deities associated with water, forming part of the cortege of Artemis and Dionysus), separated by two small pillars, covered with a tunic in the lower part of the body and barebreasted, carrying shells and pouring water from the jars.

Skyphos con decorazione geometrica
Skyphos with a geometric pattern

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Skyphos with a geometric pattern

The cup, which dates back to the first half of the eighth century BC (780 -770 BC), was found in the tomb n. 29 in the necropolis, excavated between February 16th and July 26th 1903, at Osta Cuma (Pozzuoli).

The Skypos (low drinking cups) presents rounded rim, distinct vertical lip, short receding shoulder, tapered belly, horizontal stick-like handles set obliquely on the area of greatest expansion, flat bottom. The inner surface of the basin is completely painted except a band on the lip, on the shoulder there is a motif a chevrons (some vertical dashes, other irregular) among groups of vertical lines; the outer part of the handles is fully painted, as well as the belly except a band and the bottom.

Kotyle with a geometric pattern

Kotyle with a geometric pattern

The cup, which can be dated to the Ancient Protocorinthian period (725 -700 BC), was found in the tomb n. 201 of the south-western necropolis of Calatia, Maddaloni (Caserta), excavated from December 1980 to May 1981 and from March 1982 to August 1982.

The kotyle (a deep drinking cup with two handles) presents indistinct rim, deep basin, horizontal stick-like handles and circular foot. On the handles there are two horizontal lines; on the outer surface of the basin, from the top to the bottom, the metope space contains twelve filiform birds with one claw painted with multiple brush between two groups of vertical parallel lines; under this decoration there are horizontal parallel lines and two horizontal wide bands that also cover the foot.

Boccale con decorazione geometrica
Mug with a geometric pattern

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BMug with a geometric pattern

The mug, which dates to the Middle Neolithic period and specifically to the first half of the fourth millennium BC (3999 – 3500 BC), comes from the Caves of Ferns of Capri.

The carinated object, moulded with purified clay and polished on the outer surface, belongs to the class of materials that characterizes the so-called “style of Capri”.

The body presents, inside a metope space bounded by red-coloured bands margined in a dark colour, a decorative motif consisting in a pattern alternate of lozenges and bundles of parallel lines. The brim is decorated with a dark-coloured line, from which dark-coloured lines hang towards the inside. The vase was completely reassembled using the two found fragments and integrating the missing parts with chalk.

Coppa del signore dei cavalli
Goblet of the lord of the horses
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Goblet of the lord of the horses

The goblet, which was found in the grave with pebbled covering n.697 of the necropolis at Fornaci in the vicinity of Santa Maria Capua Vetere (Caserta), belonged to a buried grown-up person. It dates to the phase II C of the Iron Age in the third quarter of the eighth century BC (749 – 725).

The goblet, which has four handles on a tall base with a flat border, vertical lip, carinated basin, flared and hollow stem decorated with small openings, presents on the brim two small cups between which there is a plastic ornament portraying a man that are holding by the reins two horses opposite each other.

The decoration of the goblet consists of groups of vertical lines at the base of the lip, among which are small conical ashlars. The stem, crossed by a row of triangular openings, is decorated by two horizontal cuts at the point of joint with the basin and by a continuous herringbone motif, among rows of dots, on the ribbing that precedes the bottom.


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