Emperor seated on the throne as Claudius
The statue, which was found in Herculaneum in 1741, was created in marble with the techniques of chiselling and dressing.
The head was properly restored by F. Tagliolini with the head of Claudius that is portrayed as a reigning emperor, seated on an unbacked throne with moulded legs, in the guise of Jupiter, with the same iconographic scheme as that of the predecessor.
In comparison with the depiction of Augustus, Claudius is represented as a young emperor, although even in this case the face is vexed, furrowed by two horizontal wrinkles and a deep vertical line in the shape of a fork between the eyebrow arches and the small eyes, slightly lowered; the nose is straight and the mouth closed, bounded on each side by vertical dimples on the prominent chin.
Even this work is inspired by Lysippus’ models through late Hellenistic eclecticism and it is a testimony of the typical iconography widely adopted to portray the kings beginning from Alexander the Great and the emperors in Roman times.
Emperor seated on the throne as Augustus
The colossal statue, which was found in Herculaneum in 1741, portrays an emperor seated on the throne; the work, created in marble with the techniques of chiselling and dressing, can be dated to around the mid-first century AD (41-54 AD).
The head was properly restored by F. Tagliolini with the head of Augustus and crowned with the typical oak wreath and hanging bandages, which reveal short locks of hair waved on the left-hand side in the middle of the forehead.
The man represented is not young, but mature with deep vertical wrinkles that furrow the forehead in the middle part and on the eyebrow arches.
The work is inspired by Lysippus’ models through late Hellenistic eclecticism; the same iconography was used in bronze and marble representations of Zeus seated and the numerous copies of Roman Imperial Ages were influenced by the chryselephantine simulacrum (in ivory and gold) of Capitoline Jupiter created by Apollonios and known from sources. This iconographic type was widely adopted to portray the kings beginning from Alexander the Great and the emperors in Roman times.
Emperor Tiberius with his head veiled (capite velato)
The statue, which portrays Emperor Tiberius, was recovered in Herculaneum on August 30th, 1741. According to some scholars it was found near the theatre, while according to other scholars in the Augusteum (the so-called Basilica).
The bronze work can be dated back to the Tiberian period and specifically to the first half of the first century AD (14-37 AD).
Emperor Tiberius is portrayed in the guise of a Pontifex Maximus with his head veiled by the large cloak that wraps the body, covering his left arm bent forward with a flap in long vertical folds. From the back it falls forward in a sweeping sinus with deep soft semicircular folds stretching down to the left knee and binds the waist with a narrow balteus knotting around a small umbo on the left chest.
The statue of remarkable workmanship follows the prototype of the Augustus of via Labicana, which portrays the ideal of pietas, in harmony with the religious traditions of the Republic, supported by the emperor after the consolidation of his power and exalted by the poets of his court.
Agrippina Minor with the head veiled (capite velato)
The bronze statue, which was found in the theatre of Herculaneum on December 22nd 1741, can be dated back to the Tiberian period and specifically to the first half of the first century AD (14-37 AD).
The statue portrays a young head-veiled woman, who can be identified as Empress Agrippina Minor. Her right arm is raised and bent towards the shoulder in order to hold up with the hand the edge of the palla (cloak), which covers her head according to the iconographic type of Pietas. Then the cloak falls down with long folds sloping on her left arm slightly lowered, in the act of gripping a flap with a graceful gesture of the hand, on the finger of which she is wearing a ring. The cloak tightly wraps the body characterized by soft and sinuous figure, hugging her hips and breast and revealing the sleeved tunic, which surrounds her neck with concentric pleats and falls down to the base with wide vertical fan-shaped folds up to cover the feet shod with soft alutae (thin soled leather footwears).
L. Mammius Maximus
The bronze statue, which was discovered in the theatre of Herculaneum on December 24th 1743, can be dated back to around the mid-first century AD (41-54 AD).
Thanks to the name on the dedicatory inscription on the bronze plate affixed on the relative base, the statue can be identified as L. Mammius Maximus, a member of the College of the Augustales (priests instituted to attend the cult of the emperor), celebrated by his fellow-citizens for his works of euergetism and in particular for the building, in the Claudian period, of a cycle of statues dedicated to the members of the emperial family in the so-called Basilica, probably the Augusteum.
The man is portrayed in the hairstyle typical of the Claudian period, that is with short and thick tufts combed on the forehead. He wears a short-sleeved tunic and a toga, with the usual arrangement of the umbo, which forms a knot in the balteus, and of the large sinus that falls down below the right knee and rotates behind the shoulders in such a way as to fall on his left arm with broad and long folds ending in a lacinia (lower edge of the cloak) between the feet shod with calcei patricii (soft leather footwears).
Livia with her head veiled (capite velato)
The bronze statue was found in the theatre of Herculaneum between March 5th and March 11th 1741 and it can be dated back to the Tiberian period and specifically to the first half of the first century AD (14-37 AD).
The work portrays the empress as a mature noble-looking woman in a solemn pose with her head veiled, in the attitude typical of a person praying.
The lady, who can be identified as Livia, Augustus’ wife, according to her facial features and her waved hair parted in the middle, wears an elegant stole (a kind of tunic) with long buttoned sleeves, which emerges from the cloak and surrounds her neck with thin oblique folds and falls down in vertical full pleats up to cover almost completely the feet shod with soft alutae (thin soled leather footwears). Besides, she wears a palla (a kind of cloak) decorated with bows along the edges, which covers her head and wraps the whole body revealing the beautiful figure.